grep matches patterns. it uses regex to match patterns
grep expression file
grep hello helloworld.txt
will searhc for hello in the file helloworld.txt
^ matches all the lines that begin with hello.
^ goes at the beginning of the search expression.
grep ^hello helloworld.txt
$ will give you all the lines that end with your search expression.
$ goes at the end of the search expression.
grep hello$ helloworld.txt
will give you all the lines that end with hello in your helloworld.txt file.
-c gives you count. For example:
grep -c ^hello helloworld.txt grep -c hello$ helloworld.txt will give you the amount of lines that start with hello and the amount of lines that end with hello.
grep is case-sensitive.
-i gives you case-insensitive results.
select non-mathcing lines
egrep -vi 'hello|world' file.txt
will find all lines that do not contain hello or world.
## [ ] search for a character
 let you search for a character. For example:
grep [h] in helloworld.txt
will output all the h instances in helloworld.txt. You can also search for multiple characters, like so:
grep [hpokj] hellowolrd.txt will return all the lines that have our given characters.
^[ ] and [ ]
will output lines that begin
^ or end
$ with our specified characters. For example:
grep ^[hpokj] hellowolrd.txt grep [hpokj]$ hellowolrd.txt
[a-z] search for a character range
grep [a-g] file.txt grep [1-9] file.txt
-f, –file=FILE take pattern input from a file
grep -f grepinput file.txt OR grep -f inputFile.txt fileToSearch.txt
list files that match our pattern in the file name or somewhere within in the files.
grep -lr cron /etc/
By default, grep outputs lines that have your pattern.
-l is so it output file names of files that have that pattern, whether in the file name or in the file content.
## -R, -r, –recursive
grep is great for parsing websites. For example, you can download a website and get only image links from it.
egrep (grep -E)
allows use of extended regex.
.* = AND
egrep -i 'hello.*world' file.txt will search for _hello world_ case-insesitively
| = OR
egrep -i 'hello|world' file.txt will search for _hello_ or _world_ case-insesitively
You can pipe multiple grep commands to get selective results
egrep 'hello|world' file.txt | grep -v jeff will find all the lines that contain either hello or world but do not contain jeff
fgrep (grep -F)
special characters don’t have any meaning.
hello$ will search for lines with hello$ and not every line that ends with hello. The results are literally what you asked for.
Good in cases where you have to search a lot of files. since youre not using regex, there’s less cpu usage. fgrep finishes much faster.